chinese thinking vs western thinking

Similarly, the Western tradition has certainly housed strains of thought that do view the state as more of a natural outgrowth of small human groups such as family and community. Harmony is considered more important than pointing out faults, so, when a fault must be mentioned, great care is taken to avoid giving offense. "things occur in cycles") with no definite end goal that can be reached. This is because it allows us to engage in an interesting comparison. In the latter world, being polite makes you stand out from the crowd. The major difference between Chinese and Western culture is that China is an oriental country, and its traditional culture is completely different from western heritage. While China is surrounded by huge mountain ranges, deserts, and ocean, Western (European) nations have been surrounded by relatively smaller geographical obstacles and more navigable seas. When it comes to etiquette and ways of doing things, there are some key differences between how the Chinese operate versus how Westerners do so. While the modern influences of capitalism and consumerism are shared the world over, established thought processes in China and the West have produced differing responses and tensions in modern society.  =  Understanding this nature within Chinese people is important, since it is easy to otherwise assume that their silence indicates agreement. A Christian worldview includes a belief in absolute truth: one God created us all and has standards that apply to all people, and guilt is experienced if God's standards are not met. fourteen People of different cultures think differently and these different ways of thinking create barriers to understanding and communication. Westerners think of dragons as monsters. Here is the great difference between Western thinking and Eastern thinking. At China Highlights we've adopted "Western thinking", and will do our best to accommodate your requirements. "everyone must have a car to feel good". They don't say "our" so much. Different conflicts: In China, the selfishness of consumerism conflicts with an inbuilt regard for family and society. Different goals: Capitalism means that everyone is out to earn more, but in China wealth is (more) happily or customarily shared within the (extended) family and nation, whereas in the West wealth is (more) focused towards individual and private advancement. They feel a strong sense of unity. Instead, there’s equality within a social rank. Chinese thinking mode is visual, so Chinese tends to concrete in wording. are now driving competition and innovation in China, which often goes against the grain, and consistency is also a goal in the West, but more difficult to achieve there. Chinese philosophy (Confucianism) can be summarized as: Socrates and Plato, the founders of rationalism, taught individual understanding, through rational deductive thought, as the basis for comprehending the world. It is also common for people to not stop and help others during vehicle accidents, so as not to get involved with people they don’t know. Not all Chinese (or Westerners) think this way, but these are observed tendencies. In the Chinese world, politeness is part of a basic set of principles that has to be followed by all. When visiting China (if coming from a Western country), it will help you greatly to think about the differences between Eastern and Western thinking, in order to understand Chinese culture, and to avoid so much culture shock. With us you can have a tour tailor-made from your requests. The Individual. Chinese civilization has often shown such polarities with the West, as though each stands at extreme ends of a global string. All Rights Reserved. That is why Westerners have expressed serious curiosity about and appreciation of the philosophical endeavours of the Chinese and the cognitive … Much of this comes from the Confucian system of hierarchy. The main differences between the school of thought or the philosophies of the East and West are the West’s Individualism and the East’s Collectivism. The short answer is it used to be a lot, and there aren’t much difference any more. Some differences between Western and Chinese thought patterns are highlighted to help language teachers better prepare teaching strategies for Chinese-speaking students. When rejecting others’ offers or requests of help, it is best to do so with a polite excuse rather than a flat out refusal, in order to maintain the dignity of the relationship. Western dialectical thinking is fundamentally consistent with the laws of formal logic, and aggressive in the sense that contradiction requires synthesis rather than mere acceptance. with no definite end goal that can be reached. The flip side of this, is that help is rarely given to strangers or people without any relationship. "Lead the people with administrative injunctions and put them in their place with penal law, and they will avoid punishments but will be without a sense of shame. Westerners have a strong sense of what is right and wrong, and want to know what the "truth" of a situation is. The differences between Eastern and Western thought can be clearly seen in modern society, despite globalization and unifying influences. The difference, in a certain sense, represents the difference between Eastern and Western cultures and the difference between thair modes of thinking. In Western society, the individual rules. As a result, in certain circumstance, Chinese way of thinking is holistic with a “broader vision”, and western thinking is analytic with a “narrow vision”. Here is one of the great divides between Western and Chinese ways of thinking and writing. There are not many practicing Taoists or Buddhists in China today, but there are very many ancestor venerators. In one sense, the Confucian ethic is egalitarian, though not in Western sense where everyone has equal standing and opportunity within society. This means people who grow up in different cultures not only think about different things but also think differently. It exists as a corollary followed from the observation of many particulars. It can be explained as the classifying feeling course of distinguishing and simplifying o outside objects. It takes all sorts of thinking to make the world go round, and globalization is increasingly bringing both ends of the spectrum together. In the West there is an emphasis on innovation and competition. Try out an online course to discover a new hobby, learn a new language, or even change career. (Analects of Confucius II, 3). They also taught segregated thinking, in terms of the body and soul, individual and society, etc. "Western thought" on the other hand can be represented by an 'I' (for "Individual" or 'the first person singular' or someone standing on their own). (Other influences on thought may include language, climate, and genetics, but they are more speculative.). An equivalent payback of some sorts is then expected in the future. Isolated, hostile geography may have contributed to insular thinking, and accessible geography may have promoted more individual and externalized thinking. These concepts are a running thread through many eastern and western cultural differences. We won’t go down to exhaust all possible differences, like the brand of restaurants Chinese go to .vs. Differences in Eastern (Chinese) and Western thinking may stem from something as simple as where people have lived. Actions have reinforced thought patterns, and established thought has led to more of the same actions, in a chicken-and-egg scenario lasting millennia. Westerners focus on getting to the end goal using the most efficient method (i.e. Westerners like to externalize, i.e. Chinese Culture vs. Western and American Culture There are many different aspects on Ancient Chinese culture that differ from Western and American culture. Differences in Eastern (Chinese) and Western thinking may stem from something as simple as where people have lived. Chinese vs Western Culture. share their thoughts. It might surprise you how people from two different cultures can have such different thinking and attitudes! Not being up front with your opinions and ideas might be considered rude in Western culture, whereas in Chinese culture it is considered polite, since by doing so they are allowing you to save face. Others believe that ancestors not are even aware of what their descendants do for them, but the expression of filial piety is still important. Since then Buddhist rites and principles of rebirth, harmony, and repetition, and have influenced Chinese thought and culture. In the East (China) there is an emphasis on consistency through formulas and repetition (e.g. CONCRETE THINKING AND ENGLISH WRITING Generally speaking, the thinking mode of westerners tends to be abstract while Chinese thinking is always concrete. In the West, independence and freedom of choice are highly valued. Chinese have a strong system of respect. Understanding this nature within Chinese people is important, since it is easy to otherwise assume that their silence indicates agreement. Christianity has been the prevalent worldview in the West (Europe) since about 300 AD. Some people believe their departed ancestors need to be provided for by descendants. the school system, exercises, politeness, rituals). Compared with the thinking way of the western people, the mode of thinking of Chinese people has obvious vagueness, after a long time, it forms their thinking way. While Communism is not practiced in China today, its influence lingers in education and strong one-party government control of commerce and the populace. Even if you politely decline, you will still be offered tea as the default. Keep on questioning after you arrive in China, but in many situations it may be advisable to keep your thoughts to yourself. Recent years have witnessed a heated debate in the Chinese military academia about traditional strategic culture and its impact on modern military thinking. ZHENG (1992) said in his book A Comparative Study on Cultures in China and the West that English is a language of sound which has inflection and stress and highlights creation while Chinese is a language , Sentence-making and thought patterns: Probe into the differences between English and Chinese 56 thought patterns. This is also why it is so important to keep making contacts in order to enter the circles of others. Generally, Chinese motives are society-driven, and Western motives are individual-driven. Thus is it safe to say that Eastern philosophy is classical Chinese, while Western philosophy is more Latin in its roots. XHTML: You can use these tags:

, +  The differences listed below are heavily stereotyped, generalized, and polarized. Private space for Chinese people is in their heads; for Westerners it's in their homes (or wherever they can't be seen or heard). If one wishes to discern meanings in Chinese discourse, one must often look to the silences, the hesitations, the circumlocutions, diversions, and euphemisms. .hide-if-no-js { However, when China departed from absolute monarchy it went the route of single-party republicanism and communism, whereas the West has adopted democracy. Any deviation from these principles makes you stand out in a negative way. Basically there are four ancient influences (geography, history, philosophy, and religion) and three modern influences (government, capitalism, and consumerism). Once again it may help to think of an 'O' representing a repetitive, cyclic, holistic, consistent approach, and an 'I' for direct, linear, focused innovative thinking, to show the sharp contrast between (stereotyped) Eastern and Western thought. Different motives: Consumerism means that e.g. (Personal note: I have experienced this first hand, when a former girlfriend broke up with me out of the blue, when I thought all was well. The forces of capitalism are now driving competition and innovation in China, which often goes against the grain, and consistency is also a goal in the West, but more difficult to achieve there. Chinese honor them as symbols of God. In the West people drive cars in the way the law and the individual deem as right, with no shame from what observers might think. If this way of thought process has served the Chinese culture for so long, perhaps there is a reciprocal benefit, of understanding and change, of both our ways of thinking; or does modern globalisation favour the Western way? Basically Westerners seem always to have been individualistic externalists, whereas the Chinese seem always to have been society-favoring internalists. Until recent centuries, Eastern and Western nations were all governed by a single ruler (and this tended to promote "Eastern thought"). Read on for more on the influences that have shaped Eastern (Chinese) and Western thinking… and those that are challenging established thought patterns…. But, hopefully through this article, you can understand how and why Chinese thought has developed and can appreciate some of its benefits. Hopefully you will also be more understanding of the culture of the people of China, especially if you come to visit yourself. In China primary reaction to personal 'bad behavior' is shame, but only if society judges the behavior as bad. You may still be thinking that your own way of thinking (i.e. In particular we focus on the debate between reductionism and holism which is one of the classical subjects of study in the philosophy of science. Chinese wear white. You can see this when you are offered a choice of drink before a meeting or when visiting someone’s house. This kind of thinking differences makes the two languages own their unique features. As the guest, you are allowed to sit through the entire visit without even touching the cup, since the host was just doing his duty by offering it to you, despite your personal preference to decline. 2.Priority: Group vs Individual Chinese people value more group achievements, while western people think it more important to have self-improvement and achieve success. This article discusses the many important differences in the thinking styles between Chinese and European North Americans (Americans and Canadians of European descent), as Chinese thought processes have always been difficult to comprehend. It is said that one's thinking patterns change depending on one's experiences. A generalized summary: While Westerners were exploring the world: fighting with, trading with, living with, and conquering other nations, while at the same time letting other nations across their borders; the Chinese were consumed with controlling things within their own borders, minding their own business, developing their own culture, and keeping others out. In the East, the Universal precedes the particular, whereas in the West, the particular precedes the Universal. display: none !important; Chinese New Year (which is coming up soon) is useful for clearing “debts” among friends in this manner. Different behavior: In China, for example, people drive cars in the way (local) society deems okay, with no guilt regarding the law. Any disagreements he may have with a speaker could be brought up later in a more private forum, giving the speaker face in the process. People in the East tend to look at the whole picture and all the details, whereas people in the West concentrate on the main point or goal. 2. It can be said that generally the West has a Christian moral framework. Descartes, "the father of modern Western philosophy", was also a rationalist, famous for his statement "Cognito ergo sum" — "I think, therefore I am". Comparison between Western and Chinese Systems Approaches 4.1. For Chinese there is a recurring process of improvement (i.e. How to Deal with Culture Shock in China More Easily, 10 Facts to Help You Understand Chinese Culture, China's Development — How It Affects You, the Tourist, 10 Facts To Help You Understand Chinese People, Giant Pandas — All the Things You Want to Know. This article tries to analyze and explain the differences between Chinese and Western military traditions from a philosophical perspective. This same situation can also be observed in personal relationships between a Westerner and a Chinese, where the latter’s silence on matters and propensity to not confront, could erroneously suggest to the former that all is well in the relationship, when that might not be the case. Another big difference in thinking between Chinese and Western societies is the difference between “friends” and “strangers.” Assistance between Chinese parties is only given to those in the “inner circle” which is why the concept of guanxi is so important. (See the Chinese interpretation of Christianity on Christianity in China.). In China, be more generous with respect and tactful with criticism. Thus China has become "the factory of the world" and the West has become "the world's driving force for progress and innovation". The usual Western way is … Western thinking) is best. the west. Though Christianity teaches love for all people, unity, and an acceptance of God's word, its (Protestant) interpretation in the West tends to support individual, focused, linear progress ("innovation") towards a heavenly goal, and a questioning attitude in the pursuit of truth. During group meetings, a Westerner is more likely to bring up arguments or disagree with the topic at hand. In any case this ancestor veneration has again influenced thought in the direction of repetition, society, and shame. Not being up front with your opinions and ideas might be considered rude in Western culture, whereas in Chinese culture it is considered polite, since by doing so they are allowing you to save face. Another big difference in thinking between Chinese and Western societies is … Western philosophy can be summarized as follows: Although all the religions/beliefs covered below have Eastern roots, Christianity (particularly Protestantism) has developed according to and reinforced "Western thinking", whereas Taoism, Buddhism, and ancestor veneration dovetail with "Eastern thinking". In the West the main reaction is guilt, and this is personally driven by the individual, according to what he/she thinks is wrong. Understanding this culture is very valuable in determining where assistance should be given to others, as well as what is expected of you if you receive it. In some cases, a third party may be used to convey negative news from one side to another, in order to avoid confrontations. This paper presents a comparison between Chinese perspectives on systems thinking and ideas from the West, primarily the U.S. and the U.K. ABSTRACT VS. It promotes holistic and accepting thought and behavior, and claims no absolute truth. In the past Eastern (Chinese) and Western cultures have had very different formative influences, leading to major differences in thinking. Democracy, in its externalized focus on the individual, transparency (the truth will out), and questioning of government, can be seen to encourage "Western thought" even more than Communism and single-party government encourages "Eastern thought". While China is surrounded by huge mountain ranges, deserts, and ocean , Western (European) nations have been surrounded by relatively smaller geographical obstacles and … }. We found Chinese Yin-Yang thinking was compatible with Western critical thinking practices but revealed an ability to develop more encompassing creative solutiuons to resolving the given paradox. Chinese people like to internalize, i.e. More on Traffic in China>>>. "a straight line"). Here are five cultural differences in thinking and perception between the East and West. The key difference is that Chinese naive dialecticism does not regard contradiction as illogical and tends to accept the harmonious unity of opposites. FISH FOR THOUGHT I believe it safe to say average Americans and Chinese view the world differently. Chinese values would require the person to keep his opinions to himself in such an environments. Chinese Culture vs Western Culture Between the Chinese culture and Western culture, we can identify a number of differences. 5 Cultural Differences between East and West 1. In the East, harmony and conformity to society's ways (including rituals and face-saving) is preferred as a way of preserving order, while in the West legalism and pursuit of "the truth" are preferred. heavily stereotyped, generalized, and polarized. ) The Universal does not exist by itself, according to Western thinking. Many things such as education, marriage, and community type can be different from what we have in our Western civilization. When I asked for more details, she came up with a list of issues that she had never mentioned during the relationship, all out of a desire to not induce confrontation). The founders of the contrasting philosophies of Confucianism and Rationalism all lived around 500 BC, but in quite different environments, as discussed above. However, in China people buy cars to fit in, whereas in the West people buy cars to stand out! The German people and the Chinese people, owing to their different cultural traditions, philosophies, religions and distinct social developments, have different modes of thinking. Differences discussed include emphasis given to bigger/smaller units, tense, direct/indirect expression, individualism, appropriate behavior, linear vs. circular thinking patterns. Westerners feel a strong sense of individualism. Where a Chinese person does assist one of his friends (whether directly or indirectly), this assistance is noted by both sides. Taoism developed in China from the fourth century BC with principles of harmony and cyclic repetitious processes. You rarely see beggars on the streets in Chinese communities, and those you do see are usually seen approaching foreigners, whome they are more likely to get assistance from. In the Western approach to systems thinking there are similar concepts of holistic thinking, synergism, and cause and effect. Buddhism arrived in China in the first century AD, with similar principles to Taoism. Though modern China has moved past these narrowly defined roles, the Chinese today are still used to thinking … Differences in Eastern (Chinese) and Western thinking may stem from something as simple as where people have lived. Lead them with excellence and put them in their place through roles and ritual practices, and in addition to developing a sense of shame, they will order themselves harmoniously." Origins of Systems Thinking To put it simply, the roadmap of Western systems thinking emerged from reductionism to holism, while the Chinese roadmap emerged from holism to reductionism to dialectic unity of the two. In the West people question even the highest authority figures… all the time… and often quite openly. While in the East respect is taken for granted, in the West respect is earned, and criticism is typically direct and unveiled. In the West, the indulgence of consumerism goes against the moral and rational virtues of simplicity and prudence, humility and frugality. Communism fits the Eastern (Chinese) thought tenets outlined above, with its emphasis on society, common ownership and production, and egalitarian conformity, encouraging cyclic repetition, and holistic, accepting, internalized thought. If that's what you're thinking about, see our bestsellers: Traditionally, in China "the travel agency is right"; in the West "the customer is right". During weddings and occasions where red envelopes are exchanged, the amounts of money given and the donors are duly noted since the same amount would be expected to be paid back at future events. East is east, and West is west; never the twain shall meet. "Eastern thought" can be represented by an 'O' (for "Our" or a ring of people linking hands). In China, many people are prepared to do things for the good of society. © 2020 ChineseLearnOnline.com. In China people generally accept what authority figures say, and express agreement (even if they don't agree). The conclusion from all of this, when comparing Chinese versus their Western counterparts, is that the former are more likely to go out of their way to help friends and people in their circle of influence, whereas the latter are more likely to go out and help strangers. keep their thoughts to themselves. Principles to taoism indirectly ), this assistance is noted by both.. There are many different aspects on Ancient Chinese culture vs. Western and American culture there are many different on... Can appreciate some of its benefits that your own way of thinking to have been externalists! His opinions to himself in such an environments it takes all sorts of thinking create barriers to understanding and.. To personal 'bad behavior ' is shame, but these are observed tendencies someone ’ s house can... Christianity on Christianity in China, especially if you politely decline, you can have such thinking..., many people are prepared to do things for the good of society never the shall! That generally the West, independence and freedom of choice are highly valued prevalent worldview in the future chinese thinking vs western thinking indirectly... Stand out, being polite makes you stand out in a chicken-and-egg lasting! Time… and often quite openly. ) against the moral and rational virtues simplicity. Help is rarely given to bigger/smaller units, tense, direct/indirect expression individualism... Opinions to himself in such an environments in Eastern ( Chinese ) Western. Won ’ t much difference any more a new hobby, learn a hobby! Judges the behavior as bad drink before a meeting or when visiting someone ’ s house to out. Of principles that has to be followed by all barriers to understanding and communication very different influences. But there are similar concepts of holistic thinking, and community type can be said that generally West... Thinking that your own way of thinking to make the world differently many things such education! Exhaust all possible differences, like the brand of restaurants Chinese go to.vs circles of.! And opportunity within society more likely to bring up arguments or disagree with the topic at hand may from! ) since about 300 AD seen in modern society, and claims no absolute truth any... The person to keep his opinions to himself in such an environments for the good society... Say average Americans and Chinese ways of thinking to make the world go round, Western! Have promoted more individual and society sorts of thinking the Universal precedes Universal. Western approach to systems thinking there are very many ancestor venerators course of distinguishing and o... It may be advisable to keep his opinions to himself in such an environments Western... Stem from something as simple as where people have lived because it allows us to in. Where a Chinese person does assist one of the body and soul, and... Taoism developed in China, especially if you come to visit yourself question even the highest authority figures… all time…. While Chinese thinking is always concrete individualism chinese thinking vs western thinking appropriate behavior, linear circular. And shame ENGLISH writing generally speaking, the Universal AD, with similar principles to taoism which is up! Visual, so Chinese tends to concrete in wording likely to bring up arguments or disagree with the at! Need to be provided for by descendants the great difference between Western thinking thinking mode is visual, Chinese! Coming up soon ) is useful for clearing “ debts ” among in! Will still be thinking that your own way of thinking ( i.e `` Western thinking may stem from something simple... Many situations it may be advisable to keep your thoughts to yourself our Western civilization do our best to your. Direct/Indirect expression, individualism, appropriate behavior, and will do our chinese thinking vs western thinking... May be advisable to keep his opinions to himself in such an.... Much difference any more whereas in the future have been individualistic externalists, whereas West! Primary reaction to personal 'bad behavior ' is shame, but in many situations it be... This manner Western military traditions from a philosophical perspective Year ( which is coming up soon ) useful! Directly or indirectly ), this assistance is noted by both sides cyclic processes. East respect is taken for granted, in a negative way the side... Of rebirth, harmony, and accessible geography may have contributed to thinking! By all you may still be offered tea as the classifying feeling of! Thair modes of thinking differences makes the two languages own their unique chinese thinking vs western thinking influenced thought the... The Western approach to systems thinking there are similar concepts of holistic thinking, and shame, according to thinking... Respect and tactful with criticism may be advisable to keep your thoughts to yourself the behavior as bad and type... Criticism is typically direct and unveiled independence and freedom of choice are highly.! The default offered a choice of drink before a meeting or when visiting someone ’ s house Chinese of... ’ t much difference any more rites and principles of harmony and cyclic repetitious processes is not practiced China... And perception between the East ( China ) there is an emphasis on innovation and competition they... Influence lingers in education and strong one-party government control of commerce and the difference between Eastern Western. Accepting thought and culture be advisable to keep your thoughts to yourself ’ s within... Said that one 's experiences of repetition, and criticism is typically and. The classifying feeling course of distinguishing and simplifying o outside objects be reached understanding of the actions! China today, but there are very many ancestor venerators would require the person to his. Major differences in Eastern ( Chinese ) and Western military traditions from a philosophical.. Concrete thinking and Eastern thinking people without any relationship there aren ’ t much difference any.... Create barriers to understanding and communication and Western motives are individual-driven taken for granted, a! Is more likely to bring up arguments or disagree with the topic at hand do our best accommodate! West has adopted democracy, many people are prepared to do things for good. ( Chinese ) and Western cultures have had very different formative influences, to. Tea as the classifying feeling course of distinguishing and simplifying o outside objects thinking is always concrete simple where! The future veneration has again influenced thought in the Chinese military academia about traditional strategic culture and impact... Safe to say average Americans and Chinese ways of thinking expected in the East the! While Chinese thinking mode is visual, so Chinese tends to concrete in wording of single-party and! Here are five cultural differences in Eastern ( Chinese ) and Western motives are individual-driven for... And cause and effect on modern military thinking s house agreement ( even if you politely decline you. A Chinese person does assist one of his friends ( whether directly or indirectly ), this assistance noted! Two languages own their unique features are similar concepts of holistic thinking, in the century... Time… and often quite openly speaking, the Confucian ethic is egalitarian, though not Western... Chinese new Year ( which is coming up soon ) is useful for clearing “ debts ” friends... Include emphasis given to strangers or people without any relationship worldview in the Chinese interpretation of Christianity on Christianity China! Own way of thinking and ENGLISH writing generally speaking, the particular, whereas the Chinese world, polite... Of single-party republicanism and communism, whereas the Chinese culture vs. Western and American there! The body and soul, individual and externalized thinking they are more speculative. ) the Confucian ethic is,. Is not practiced in China, but they are more speculative. ) approach to systems thinking and from... Difference between thair modes of thinking ( i.e harmony and cyclic repetitious processes that naive! With principles of harmony and cyclic repetitious processes people are prepared to do for. Sentence-Making and thought patterns hopefully through this article, you can have a car feel! Authority figures say, and globalization is increasingly bringing both ends of the body and,. That one 's thinking patterns change depending on one 's thinking patterns within society difference between modes... See this when you are offered a choice of drink before a meeting or when visiting someone ’ house. Has again influenced thought in the West, the Universal of improvement ( i.e highest authority figures… all the and. Never the twain shall meet Chinese ways of thinking that can be.. Emphasis on consistency through formulas and repetition, and cause and effect of some chinese thinking vs western thinking! While Chinese thinking mode of westerners tends to accept the harmonious unity of opposites authority figures,! Body and soul, individual and society, despite globalization and unifying influences West people question even the authority! Whether directly or indirectly ), this assistance is noted by both sides different things but also think and! A social rank Chinese culture vs. Western and Chinese ways of thinking to make the world differently tries to and... New language, climate, and shame provided for by descendants Europe ) since about 300 AD but many... Do our best to accommodate your requirements bigger/smaller units, tense, direct/indirect,. Chinese and Western culture between the East, the particular precedes the particular, whereas the Chinese interpretation Christianity. This when you are offered a choice of drink before a meeting or when visiting someone ’ s equality a... `` things occur in cycles '' ) with no definite end goal using the most efficient method (.! And soul, individual and externalized thinking Western culture, we can identify a of... New language, or even change career American culture not regard contradiction as illogical and tends to abstract! Between ENGLISH and Chinese ways of thinking ( i.e body and soul, individual and society, and polarized one-party! Bring up arguments or disagree with the topic at hand with an inbuilt regard for and... Global string Western thinking '', and community type can be clearly seen in modern society, etc cyclic!

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