Tigranes' successor Artavasdes II even composed Greek tragedies himself. Antiochus then banned key Jewish religious rites and traditions in Judea. However, local cultures were not replaced, and mostly went on as before, but now with a new Greco-Macedonian or otherwise Hellenized elite. He promoted short poetic forms such as the epigram, epyllion and the iambic and attacked epic as base and common ("big book, big evil" was his doctrine). Carthage was a Phoenician colony on the coast of Tunisia.  In about 155 (or 165) BC he seems to have been succeeded by the most successful of the Indo-Greek kings, Menander I. Menander converted to Buddhism, and seems to have been a great patron of the religion; he is remembered in some Buddhist texts as 'Milinda'. They were made of either stone or stucco. In particular, Martyr used the Greek concept of internal and external thought to illustrate Jesus Christ…  Under the Hellenistic kingdoms, Judea was ruled by the hereditary office of the High Priest of Israel as a Hellenistic vassal. The Mahabharata compliments them as "the all-knowing Yavanas" (sarvajÃ±Ä yavanÄ); e.g., "The Yavanas, O king, are all-knowing; the Suras are particularly so. The Hellenistic West, pp.  Known as the "Father of Geography", Eratosthenes also created the first map of the world incorporating parallels and meridians, based on the available geographical knowledge of the era. The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). Î½Î¿Î³Î±Î»Î¬ÏÎ±Î¹ (HellÄnogalÃ¡tai) by Diodorus Siculus in his Bibliotheca historica v.32.5, who wrote that they were "called Helleno-Galatians because of their connection with the Greeks.". The Cambridge Ancient History, Volume 6: The Fourth Century BC by D. M. Lewis (Editor), John Boardman (Editor), Simon Hornblower (Editor), M. Ostwald (Editor), Dalmatia: research in the Roman province 1970-2001 : papers in honour of J.J by David Davison, Vincent L. Gaffney, J. J. Wilkes, Emilio Marin, 2006, page 21, "...completely Hellenised town...". Preserved examples of ball projectiles range from 4.4 to 78 kg (9.7 to 172.0 lb). During the Hellenistic period, many different schools of thought developed, and these schools of Hellenistic philosophy had a significant influence on the Greek and Roman ruling elite. Stoicism, founded by Zeno of Citium, taught that virtue was sufficient for eudaimonia as it would allow one to live in accordance with Nature or Logos. It seems likely that Alexander himself pursued policies which led to Hellenization, such as the foundations of new cities and Greek colonies. Orontid Armenia formally passed to the empire of Alexander the Great following his conquest of Persia. Astrology was widely associated with the cult of Tyche (luck, fortune), which grew in popularity during this period. The last Hasmonean ruler, Antigonus II Mattathias, was captured by Herod and executed in 37 BC. The resulting Indo-Scythian kingdom seems to have gradually pushed the remaining Indo-Greek kingdom towards the east. In 255 BC, Ariarathes III took the title of king and married Stratonice, a daughter of Antiochus II, remaining an ally of the Seleucid kingdom. Consequently, koine spread across the Hellenistic world, becoming the lingua franca of commerce and culture. The wars of Antiochus III brought the region into the Seleucid empire; Jerusalem fell to his control in 198 BC and the Temple was repaired and provided with money and tribute. In this way, hybrid 'Hellenistic' cultures naturally emerged, at least among the upper echelons of society. Large numbers of his coins have been found in India, and he seems to have reigned in Gandhara as well as western Punjab. Further ruin was brought to Greece by the Roman civil wars, which were partly fought in Greece. Hellenistic Impact on Indian Culture. Alexander of Macedon was the son of Philip II (r. 359-336 BCE) who recognized that his neighbors considered Macedon a backward region of little importance and decided to change that view dramatically. The founding of new cities and military colonies continued to be a major part of the Successors' struggle for control of any particular region, and these continued to be centers of cultural diffusion. Philip took over as king of … [failed verification] Similarly complex devices were also developed by other Muslim engineers and astronomers during the Middle Ages. ... Later it spread over to Taxila, Mathura and Sarnath. As far as the Indian subcontinent, Hellenistic influence on Indian art was broad and far-reaching, and had effects for several centuries following the forays of Alexander the Great. The poet-critic Callimachus, a staunch elitist, wrote hymns equating Ptolemy II to Zeus and Apollo. Developments in painting included experiments in chiaroscuro by Zeuxis and the development of landscape painting and still life painting. The Parthians continued worshipping Greek gods syncretized together with Iranian deities. The plots of this new Hellenistic comedy of manners were more domestic and formulaic, stereotypical low born characters such as slaves became more important, the language was colloquial and major motifs included escapism, marriage, romance and luck (Tyche). Many cities maintained nominal autonomy while under the rule of the local king or satrap, and often had Greek-style institutions. Apollodotus I was succeeded by or ruled alongside Antimachus II, likely the son of the Bactrian king Antimachus I. Most of the native population was not Hellenized, had little access to Greek culture and often found themselves discriminated against by their Hellenic overlords. Upon the Jews' return from exile in Babylon, they endeavored to protect their national identity by following the law closely. The mlecchas are wedded to the creations of their own fancy", such as flying machines that are generally called vimanas. Though this comparison is now seen as unfair and meaningless, it has been noted that even commentators of the time saw the end of a cultural era which could not be matched again. 173-179. Victorious, the Romans abolished the Macedonian kingdom, replacing it with four puppet republics; these lasted a further twenty years before Macedon was formally annexed as a Roman province (146 BC) after yet another rebellion under Andriscus. The Sophists proclaimed the centrality of humanity and agnosticism; the belief in Euhemerism (the view that the gods were simply ancient kings and heroes), became popular. Their last king, Nicomedes IV, was unable to maintain himself against Mithridates VI of Pontus, and, after being restored to his throne by the Roman Senate, he bequeathed his kingdom by will to the Roman republic (74 BC). An example that shows the spread of Greek theater is Plutarch's story of the death of Crassus, in which his head was taken to the Parthian court and used as a prop in a performance of The Bacchae. The first important point to note in answering this question is that when the Greeks…especially the Athenians…were at the height of influence in the 5th century BCE, Rome was still a backwater. This approach was bitterly resented by the Macedonians and discarded by most of the Diadochi after Alexander's death. traditionally marks the beginning of the Hellenistic period. Armies of the Hellenistic period differed from those of the classical period in being largely made up of professional soldiers and also in their greater specialization and technical proficiency in siege warfare. Hellenistic culture was at its height of world influence in the Hellenistic period. The Hellenistic period saw the rise of New Comedy, the only few surviving representative texts being those of Menander (born 342/341 BC). In this political climate, Hellenistic philosophers went in search of goals such as ataraxia (un-disturbedness), autarky (self-sufficiency), and apatheia (freedom from suffering), which would allow them to wrest well-being or eudaimonia out of the most difficult turns of fortune. Settlements such as Ai-Khanoum, on trade routes, allowed Greek culture to mix and spread. However, William Woodthorpe Tarn, between World War I and World War II and the heyday of the League of Nations, focused on the issues of racial and cultural confrontation and the nature of colonial rule.  He was also the first to calculate the tilt of the Earth's axis (again with remarkable accuracy). After the death of Menander (c. 130 BC), the Kingdom appears to have fragmented, with several 'kings' attested contemporaneously in different regions. The Hellenistic period was a time when Greek culture spread throughout and influenced Southwest Asia and the Eastern Mediterranean regions. The Greeks placed a large emphasis on philosophy, science, and literature.  He also wrote a massive catalog of the holdings of the library of Alexandria, the famous Pinakes. They enjoyed Greek theater, and Greek art influenced Parthian art. Most of the great literary figures of the Hellenistic period studied at Alexandria and conducted research there. Stanley M. Burstein, Walter Donlan, Jennifer Tolbert Roberts, and Sarah B. Pomeroy. While victorious in the field, it seems Antiochus came to realise that there were advantages in the status quo (perhaps sensing that Bactria could not be governed from Syria), and married one of his daughters to Euthydemus's son, thus legitimising the Greco-Bactrian dynasty. The "Brihat-Samhita" of the mathematician Varahamihira says: "The Greeks, though impure, must be honored since they were trained in sciences and therein, excelled others...".. There has been a trend in writing the history of this period to depict Hellenistic art as a decadent style, following the Golden Age of Classical Athens. Armenia later became a vassal state of the Seleucid Empire, but it maintained a considerable degree of autonomy, retaining its native rulers. Alien Wisdom: The Limits of Hellenization, pp. He had been a student of Callimachus and later became chief librarian (prostates) of the library of Alexandria. The Greeks in the regions therefore gradually become 'localized', adopting local customs as appropriate. The poetry of Virgil, Horace and Ovid were all based on Hellenistic styles. After a long struggle with Rome in the Mithridatic wars, Pontus was defeated; part of it was incorporated into the Roman Republic as the province of Bithynia, while Pontus' eastern half survived as a client kingdom.  It has recently been claimed that a celestial globe based on Hipparchus' star catalog sits atop the broad shoulders of a large 2nd-century Roman statue known as the Farnese Atlas. His contribution to the development and promotion of the Greek culture and language is done through his conquests of the new lands and other cultures, thus enabling the spread of Hellenization within the period of his life, which was the fourth century BC (Eraman 34). Crateuas wrote a compendium on botanic pharmacy.  The peoples around Pontic Olbia, known as the Callipidae, were intermixed and Hellenized Greco-Scythians. Before the Hellenistic period, Greek colonies had been established on the coast of the Crimean and Taman peninsulas. First the Greeks (and others) spread their culture around the Mediterranean, then Alexander and the Hellenistic kingdoms spread trade and culture eastward to India, north into Central Asia, and south into Africa. Martyr was an early apologist, explaining Christianity to this new Greek flock within their own system of philosophy. 3 Greek Lauguage and Ideas Non-Greeks wishing to pursue a government career had to learn koine, a standardized form of Greek based on the Athenian dialect. There was a temple to Serapis, the Greco-Egyptian god. The kingdom of Colchis, which later became a Roman client state, received Hellenistic influences from the Black Sea Greek colonies. Rome now demanded that the Achaean League, the last stronghold of Greek independence, be dissolved. Michael Rostovtzeff, who fled the Russian Revolution, concentrated predominantly on the rise of the capitalist bourgeoisie in areas of Greek rule.  The rise of philosophy and the sciences had removed the gods from many of their traditional domains such as their role in the movement of the heavenly bodies and natural disasters. Pastoral poetry also thrived during the Hellenistic era, Theocritus was a major poet who popularized the genre. Some of gold and silver with openwork designs of stylised birds have a similar distribution to the Mramorac bracelets and may also have been produced under Greek influence.". He ruled until 238 BC when Arsaces, the leader of the Parni tribe conquered Parthia, killing Andragoras and inaugurating the Arsacid Dynasty. The Spartocids were a hellenized Thracian family from Panticapaeum. The death of Alexander the Great in 323 B.C. How did Hellenistic Culture shape the rest of the Mediterranean world? The Hasmonean Dynasty eventually disintegrated in a civil war, which coincided with civil wars in Rome. How was Hellenistic culture created and spread?  He thereby completed both the destruction of the Hellenistic kingdoms and the Roman Republic, and ended (in hindsight) the Hellenistic era. Bugh, Glenn R. (editor). The farther away from the Mediterranean and the lower in social status, the more likely that a colonist was to adopt local ways, while the Greco-Macedonian elites and royal families usually remained thoroughly Greek and viewed most non-Greeks with disdain. with other people where him and his men went. Epigraphic evidence also shows extensive Hellenistic influence in the interior. The Nabateans resisted the attacks of Antigonus and were allies of the Hasmoneans in their struggle against the Seleucids, but later fought against Herod the Great. Greece city-states weak after the Peloponnesian Wars ; 359 B.C. Hellenistic art saw a turn from the idealistic, perfected, calm and composed figures of classical Greek art to a style dominated by realism and the depiction of emotion (pathos) and character (ethos). During the course of this war Roman troops moved into Asia for the first time, where they defeated Antiochus again at the Battle of Magnesia (190 BC). These Hellenized Scythians were known as the "young Scythians". It was not until the reign of Phraates I (c. 176â171 BC), that the Arsacids would again begin to assert their independence.. New siege engines were developed during this period. In 247 BC, following the death of Antiochus II Theos, Andragoras, the Seleucid governor of Parthia, proclaimed his independence and began minting coins showing himself wearing a royal diadem and claiming kingship. Heliocles was the last Greek to clearly rule Bactria, his power collapsing in the face of central Asian tribal invasions (Scythian and Yuezhi), by about 130 BC. In the Indo-Greek kingdom we find kings who were converts to Buddhism (e.g., Menander). Why don't libraries smell like bookstores? Scythian pressure on the Bosporan kingdom under Paerisades V led to its eventual vassalage under the Pontic king Mithradates VI for protection, c. 107 BC. He also expanded the kingdom further east into Punjab, though these conquests were rather ephemeral. The motif of deceptively realistic naturalism in art (aletheia) is reflected in stories such as that of the painter Zeuxis, who was said to have painted grapes that seemed so real that birds came and pecked at them. After their defeat in the First Punic War, Carthage hired a Spartan mercenary captain, Xanthippus of Carthage, to reform their military forces. It has been noted by Herodotus that after the establishment of the Athenian democracy: ...the Athenians found themselves suddenly a great power. [failed verification]. 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